Eating healthy food during pregnancy is important for you and your baby's health. Nutritional needs are higher when you are pregnant.
Ask your lead maternity carer (LMC) for special advice on what to eat during pregnancy if you are:
Contrary to old wives' tales, you should not 'eat for two' when you are pregnant. Too much weight gain is unhealthy for you and may be harmful for your developing baby. This poster(external link) provides a guide on healthy weight gain in pregnancy.
Studies have shown that women who exercise regularly report feeling better during their pregnancy than sedentary women.
However, if you are usually a bit of a 'couch potato', pregnancy is not the time to start a rigorous exercise regime. Investigate gentle types of exercise, such as walking and specialised pregnancy fitness classes.
If you are into sports or have an established exercise routine, talk to your LMC about how you can adapt your usual exercise programme. You may be able to continue training well into your pregnancy.
Every pregnancy is different, so talk to your LMC about how much and what types of exercise you can safely do while pregnant.
If you would like some extra support and motivation with diet and exercise during pregnancy, you can sign up with Green Prescription(external link). Take a look at the GRX video(external link) to find out about the programme and some success stories. Apply on their website(external link) or talk with your doctor or LMC.
For more information on exercise during pregnancy, refer to the section below.
Remember, you will need to talk to your LMC about how much and what types of exercise you can safely do while you're pregnant.
Activities that are low-impact or non-weight bearing - such as swimming, walking and cycling - are generally the best cardiovascular choices for pregnant women. Other options can include low-impact exercise classes, cross-training machines, stationery cycling and treadmills.
There is some evidence that intense exercise (when your pulse is higher than 150 bpm) causes bursts of rapid heart beats in the baby, which may be an indicator of stress. It's probably best to exercise at a moderate or mild level.
Standard recommended intensities are 60-75% maximum heart rate for the unfit woman and 70-85% for women who exercise regularly. Shorter cardiovascular exercise intervals (15-20 minutes) may help prevent heat stress to you or your baby.
If you usually do regular strength training, there's every chance you can safely continue. Strong muscles will come in handy once your baby has arrived. A physiotherapist or professional trainer who understands your body's changes during pregnancy can help you to identify an appropriate strength training programme.
Medical experts recommend that women avoid lying on their backs to exercise after the first trimester, because blood flow to the baby can be decreased.
If you're a keen dancer, tennis player, skier or yogi, remember that your pregnant body won't be as agile or as good at balancing. Increased body size, looser joints and an altered centre of gravity could make you accident and injury prone. Use your common sense and change to less challenging forms of exercise, especially during the third trimester.
Pelvic floor exercises during and after pregnancy help to prevent stress incontinence (involuntary loss of urine when you sneeze, cough, laugh or lift). Ask your LMC about daily exercises for strengthening your pelvic floor muscles.
Activities that limit your ability to get oxygen - such as free diving, scuba diving and mountain climbing - should be avoided. After 20 weeks, sports and activities that carry the risk of falls or abdominal trauma (soccer, netball, basketball, horse riding and racquet sports) should also be avoided.